Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

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The following dataset comprise data on the demography, life history, ontogeny, morphology, energetics, and nutrition of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). All data describe adults unless noted otherwise. The data are compiled from many different sources, thus compromising the value of both inter- and intraspecific data comparisons. All datasets include a sources sheet; the complete bibliography is also presented on the webpage. Many ape species have not been studied thoroughly and lack data in most areas of interest.

Whole dataset


Boesch, C. & Boesch-Achermann, H. (2000). The Chimpanzees of the Tai Forest. Oxford University Press. [link]

Carlsen, F., ed. (2009). European studbook for the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes. European Association of Zoos and Aquaria. [pdf]

Coolidge, H. & Shea, B. (1982). External body dimensions of Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes chimpanzees. Primates 23, 245–251. [link]

Cramer, D. (1977). Craniofacial morphology of Pan paniscus. Contributions to Primatology 10, 1-64. [link]

Dyke, B., Gage, T., Alford, P., Swenson, B. & Williams‐Blangero, S. (1995). Model life table for captive chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology 37, 25–37. [link]

Froehle, A., & Schoeninger, M. (2006). Intraspecies variation in BMR does not affect estimates of early hominin total daily energy expenditure. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 131, 552–559. [link]

Goodall, J. (1986). The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Harvard University Press.

Jungers, W. & Susman, R. (1984). Allometry in African apes. In The Pygmy Chimpanzee, ed. R. Susman, pp. 131–177. Plenum Press.

Lathouwers, M. & Elsacker, L. (2005). Reproductive parameters of female Pan paniscus and P. troglodytes: quality versus quantity. International Journal of Primatology 26, 55–71. [link]

Mahaney, W., Zippin, J., Milner, M., Sanmugadas, K., Hancock, R., Aufreiter, S., Campbell, S., Huffman, M., Wink, M., & Malloch, D. (1999). Chemistry, mineralogy, and microbiology of termite mound soil eaten by the chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains, western Tanzania. Journal of Tropical Ecology 15, 565–588. [link]

Matsuzawa, T., Humle, T., & Sugiyama, Y. (2011). The Chimpanzees of Bossou and Nimba. Springer Science+Business Media. [link]

Merfield, F. Powell-Cotton Museum Permanent Collection Database. [link]

Nadler, R., Graham, C., Gosselin, R. & Collins, D. (1985). Serum levels of gonadotropins and gonadal steroids, including testosterone, during the menstrual cycle of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 9, 273–284. [link]

Nishida, T. (1990). The Chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains: sexual and life history strategies. University of Tokyo Press.

Nishida, T. (2012). Chimpanzees of the Lakeshore: natural history and culture at Mahale. Cambridge University Press. [link]

Nishida, T. & Uehara, S. (1983). Natural Diet of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): Long-term record from the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. African Study Monographs 3, 109–130. [link] [pdf]

Nishida, T., Ohigashi, H. & Koshimizu, K. (2000). Tastes of chimpanzee plant foods. Current Anthropology 41, 431–438. [link]

Nishida, T., Corp, N., Hamai, M., Hasegawa, T., Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M., Hosaka, K., & Hunt, K. (2003). Demography, female life history, and reproductive profiles among the chimpanzees of Mahale. American Journal of Primatology 59, 99–121. [link]

Oates, J.F., Tutin, C.E.G., Humle, T., Wilson, M.L., Baillie, J.E.M., Balmforth, Z., Blom, A., Boesch, C., Cox, D., Davenport, T., Dunn, A., Dupain, J., Duvall, C., Ellis, C.M., Farmer, K.H., Gatti, S., Greengrass, E., Hart, J., Herbinger, I., Hicks, C., Hunt, K.D., Kamenya, S., Maisels, F., Mitani, J.C., Moore, J., Morgan, B.J., Morgan, D.B., Nakamura, M., Nixon, S., Plumptre, A.J., Reynolds, V., Stokes, E.J. & Walsh, P.D. (2008). Pan troglodytes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. [link]

O’Malley, R. & Power, M. (2012). Nutritional composition of actual and potential insect prey for the Kasekela chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 149, 493–503. [link]

Pontzer, H. & Wrangham, R. (2004). Climbing and the daily energy cost of locomotion in wild chimpanzees: implications for hominoid locomotor evolution. Journal of Human Evolution 46, 315–333. [link] [pdf]

Pontzer, H., Raichlen, D., Gordon, A., Schroepfer-Walker, K., Hare, B., O'Neill, M., Muldoon, K., Dunsworth, H., Wood, B., Isler, K., Burkart, J., Irwin, M., Schumaker, R., Lonsdorf, E., & Ross, S. (2014). Primate energy expenditure and life history. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111, 1433–1437. [link] [pdf]

Ross, S., ed. (2012). North American Regional Chimpanzee Studbook (Pan troglodytes). Chimpanzee Species Survival Plan. [link] [pdf]

Smith, R. & Jungers, W. (1997). Body mass in comparative primatology. Journal of Human Evolution 32, 523-559. [link]

Sockol, M., Raichlen, D. & Pontzer, H. (2007). Chimpanzee locomotor energetics and the origin of human bipedalism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104, 12265–12269. [link]

Videan, E., Fritz, J. & Murphy, J. (2007). Development of guidelines for assessing obesity in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Zoo Biology 26, 93–104. [link]

Wallis, J. (1997). A survey of reproductive parameters in the free-ranging chimpanzees of Gombe National Park. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 109, 297–307. [link] [pdf]

Wood, B. (1979). Relationship between body size and long bone lengths in Pan and GorillaAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology 50, 23–25. [link]

World Wildlife Fund. (2015). Global Ecoregions. Accessed June 2015. [link]

Zihlman, A. (1984). Body build and tissue composition in chimpanzees. In The Pygmy Chimpanzee, ed. R. Susman, pp. 179-200. Plenum Press.

Zihlman, A.L. & Cramer, D.L. (1978). Skeletal differences between pygmy (Pan paniscus) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Folia Primatologica 29, 86–94. [link]