Hylobates gibbons

The hoolock gibbons are currently classified as two species: the endangered western hoolock gibbon and the vulnerable eastern hoolock gibbon.


The following dataset comprise data on the demography, life history, ontogeny, morphology, energetics, and nutrition of the western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) and the eastern hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys). All data describe adults unless noted otherwise. The data are compiled from many different sources, thus compromising the value of both inter- and intraspecific data comparisons. All datasets include a sources sheet; the complete bibliography is also presented on the webpage. Many ape species have not been studied thoroughly and lack data in most areas of interest.

Whole dataset


Andayani, N., Brockelman, W., Geissmann, T., Nijman, V. & Supriatna, J. (2008). Hylobates moloch. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. Accessed July 2015. [link]

Barelli, C, Heistermann, M & Boesch, C. (2007). Sexual swellings in wild white-handed gibbon females (Hylobates lar) indicate the probability of ovulation. Hormones and Behavior 51, 221-230. [link]

Bartlett, T. (2009). The Gibbons of Khao Yai. Prentice Hall.

Brockelman, W.Y., Reichard, U. & Treesucon, U. (1998). Dispersal, pair formation and social structure in gibbons (Hylobates lar). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 42, 329-339. [link]

Brockelman, W. & Geissmann, T. (2008). Hylobates lar. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. Accessed July 2015. [link]

Brockelman, W., Geissmann, T., Timmins, T. & Traeholt, C. (2008). Hylobates pileatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. Accessed July 2015. [link]

Bruhn, J. (1934). The respiratory metabolism of infrahuman primates. American Journal of Physiology 110, 477–484. [link]

Buckley, C., Nekaris, K. & Husson, S. (2006). Survey of Hylobates agilis albibarbis in a logged peat-swamp forest: Sabangau catchment, Central Kalimantan. Primates 47, 327–335. [link]

Cocks, L. & Campbell, C. (2008). Husbandry Manual for the Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch). Perth Zoo. [link] [pdf]

Elder, A. (2009). Hylobatid diets revisited: The importance of body mass, fruit availability, and interspecific competition. In The Gibbons, eds. S. Lappan and D. Whittaker, pp. 133-159. Springer Science+Business Media. [link]

Geissmann, T. (1991). Reassessment of age of sexual maturity in gibbons (Hylobates spp.). American Journal of Primatology 23, 11–22. [link] [pdf]

Geissmann, T. & Orgeldinger, M. (1995). Neonatal weight in gibbons (Hylobates spp.). American Journal of Primatology 37, 179–189. [link] [pdf]

Geissmann, T. & Nijman, V. (2008). Hylobates agilis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. Accessed July 2015. [link]

Geissmann, T. & Nijman, V. (2008). Hylobates muelleri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. Accessed July 2015. [link]

Geissmann, T. & Anzenberger, G. (2009). Hormonal correlates of the ovarian cycle in the yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), and a review of ovarian cycles in gibbons (Hylobatidae). Gibbon Journal 5, 61–73. [link] [pdf]

Hayssen, V. & Tienhoven, A. (1993). Asdell’s Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction. Cornell University Press. [link]

Hodgkiss, S., Thetford, E., Waitt, C. D. & Nijman, V. (2010). Female reproductive parameters in the Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch). Zoo Biology 29, 449–456. [link]

Jago, N. & Melfi, V. (2010). Sex ratios in captive gibbons. Zoo Research News 11. [link] [pdf]

Kim, S., Lappan, S. & Choe, J. (2011). Diet and ranging behavior of the endangered Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch) in a submontane tropical rainforest. American Journal of Primatology 73, 270–280. [link]

Leigh, S. R. & Shea, B. T. (1995). Ontogeny and the evolution of adult body size dimorphism in apes. American Journal of Primatology 36, 37–60. [link]

Maheshwari, H, Sjahfirdi, L & Astuti, P. (2012). Fecal pregnanediol glucuronide and serum progesterone patterns for ovarian function assessment of Javan gibbons (Hylobates moloch). World Applied Sciences Journal 18, 737-744. [link] [pdf]

Malone, N. & Fuentes, A. (2009). The ecology and evolution of hylobatid communities: causal and contextual factors underlying inter- and intraspecific variation. In The Gibbons, eds. S. Lappan and D. Whittaker, pp. 241–264. Springer Science+Business Media. [link]

Margulis, S. W., Burns, F. & Rothenberg, A. (2012). Sex ratio bias in managed populations of hylobatids. Folia Primatologica 82, 224-235. [link]

Marshall A, Cannon C, Leighton M. Competition and niche overlap between gibbons (Hylobates albibarbis) and other frugivorous vertebrates in Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. In The Gibbons, eds. S. Lappan and D. Whittaker, pp. 161-188. Springer Science+Business Media. [link]

McConkey, K., Aldy, F., Ario, A. & Chivers, D. (2002). Selection of fruit by gibbons (Hylobates muelleri x agilis) in the rain forests of central Borneo. International Journal of Primatology 23, 123–145. [link]

Melfi, V. (2012). Ex situ gibbon conservation: status, management and birth sex ratios. International Zoo Yearbook 46, 241–251. [link]

Mitani, J. (1990). Demography of agile gibbons (Hylobates agilis). International Journal of Primatology 11, 411-424. [link]

Moisson, P. & Berthet, M. (2007). Nomascus European Studbook Number 2 EEP (data 31.12.2006). Zoo Mulhouse. [link] [pdf]

Nijman, V. (2004). Conservation of the Javan gibbon Hylobates moloch: population estimates, local extinctions, and conservation priorities. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 52, 271–280. [link] [pdf]

Nijman, V., Richardson, M. & Geissmann, T. (2008). Hylobates albibarbis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. Accessed July 2015. [link]

O’brien, T.G., Kinnaird, M.F., Nurcahyo, A. & Iqbal, M. (2004). Abundance and distribution of sympatric gibbons in a threatened Sumatran rain forest. International Journal of Primatology 25, 267-284. [link]

O’Brien, T.G. & Kinnaird, M.F. (2011) Demography of agile gibbons (Hylobates agilis) in a lowland tropical rain forest of southern Sumatra, Indonesia: problems in paradise. International Journal of Primatology 32, 1203-1217. [link] [pdf]

Raemaekers, J. (1979). Ecology of sympatric gibbons. Folia Primatologica 31, 227–245. [link]

Reichard, U.H. The social organization and mating system of Khao Yai white-handed gibbons: 1992-2006. In The Gibbons, eds. S. Lappan and D. Whittaker, pp. 347-384. Springer Science+Business Media. [link]

Reichard, U.H. & Barelli, C. (2008). Life history and reproductive strategies of Khao Yai Hylobates lar: implications for social evolution in apes. International Journal of Primatology 29, 823-844. [link]

Rowe, N. (1996). The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. Pogonias Press. [link]

Smith, R. & Jungers, W. (1997). Body mass in comparative primatology. Journal of Human Evolution 32, 523-559. [link]

Traeholt, C., Bunthoeun, R., Rawson, B., Samuth, M., Virak, C., & Vuthin, S. (2006). Status review of pileated gibbon, Hylobates pileatus, and yellow-cheeked crested gibbon, Nomascus gabriellae, in Cambodia. Fauna & Flora International. [pdf]

Whittaker, D. (2005). Evolutionary genetics of Kloss’s gibbon (Hylobates klossii): systematics, phylogeography, and conservation. (Ph.D. thesis, City University of New York). [pdf]

Whittaker, D. (2005). New population estimates for the endemic Kloss’s gibbon Hylobates klossii on the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia. Oryx 39, 4. [link]

Whittaker, D. & Geissmann, T. (2008). Hylobates klossii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. Accessed July 2015. [link]

Whitten, A. (1982). Home range use by Kloss gibbons (Hylobates klossii) on Siberut Island, Indonesia. Animal Behaviour 30, 182–198. [link]

Whitten, A. (1982). Diet and feeding behavior of Kloss gibbons in Siberut Island, Indonesia. Folia Primatologica 37, 177–208. [link]