The crested gibbons (Nomascus)

The crested gibbons currently comprise seven species: the endangered western hoolock gibbon and the vulnerable eastern hoolock gibbon.


The following dataset comprise data on the demography, life history, ontogeny, morphology, energetics, and nutrition of the western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) and the eastern hoolock gibbon (Hoolock leuconedys). All data describe adults unless noted otherwise. The data are compiled from many different sources, thus compromising the value of both inter- and intraspecific data comparisons. All datasets include a sources sheet; the complete bibliography is also presented on the webpage. Many ape species have not been studied thoroughly and lack data in most areas of interest.

Whole dataset


Bartlett, T. (2009). The Gibbons of Khao Yai. Prentice Hall.

Chan, B.P.L., Fellowes, J.R., Geissmann, T. and Zhang, J. (eds.). 2005. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for the Hainan Gibbon - Version I (Last updated November 2005). Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden Technical Report No. 3. KFBG, Hong Kong SAR, iii + 33 pp. [link] [pdf]

Chen, J., Su, Y.C., Chen, G.Q. & Wang, W.D. (1999). Ethnobotanical studies on wild edible fruits in southern Yunnan: folk names, nutritional values and uses. Economic Botany 53, 2–14. [link]

Chen, X., Deng, Z., Bai, Q., Chen, G., Liu, Y., & Liu, Z. (2001). Fruit characteristics and Muntiacus muntijak vaginalis (Muntjac) visits to individuals plants of Choerospondias axillarisBiotropica 33, 718–722. [link]

Dat, L., Tuoc, D., Tri, D., Dinh, L. & Kien, D. (2009). Census of southern white-cheeked crested gibbons in U Bo and adjacent bufferzone forests, Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park, Bo Trach District, Quang Binh Province, Vietnam. Fauna & Flora International. [link] [pdf]

Fan, P., Ni, Q., Sun, G., Huang, B. & Jiang, X. (2008). Seasonal variations in the activity budget of Nomascus concolor jingdongensis at Mt. Wuliang, Central Yunnan, China: effects of diet and temperature. International Journal of Primatology 29, 1047–1057. [link]

Fan, P.F. & Jiang, X.L. (2010). Maintenance of multifemale social organization in a group of Nomascus concolor at Wuliang Mountain, Yunnan, China. International Journal of Primatology 31, 1-13. [link]

Fan, P.F., Fei, H.L., Scott, M., Zhang, W. & Ma, C.Y. (2011). Habitat and food choice of the critically endangered cao vit gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) in China: implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 144, 2247–2254. [link]

Fan, P.F., Bartlett, T.Q., Fei, H.L. & Ma, C.Y. (2015). Understanding stable bi-female grouping in gibbons: feeding competition and reproductive success. Frontiers in Zoology 12:5. [link]

Geissmann, T. (1991). Reassessment of age of sexual maturity in gibbons (Hylobates spp.). American Journal of Primatology 23, 11–22. [link] [pdf]

Geissmann, T. & Orgeldinger, M. (1995). Neonatal weight in gibbons (Hylobates spp.). American Journal of Primatology 37, 179–189. [link] [pdf]

Geissmann, T. & Anzenberger, G. (2009). Hormonal correlates of the ovarian cycle in the yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), and a review of ovarian cycles in gibbons (Hylobatidae). Gibbon Journal 5, 61–73. [link] [pdf]

Geissmann, T., Dang, N. X., Lormee, N. & Momberg, F. (2000). Vietnam Primate Conservation Status Review 2000 Part 1: Gibbons. Fauna & Flora International, Indochina Programme. [link] [pdf]

Haque, M. N., Sah, B. K., Karim, M. R. & Bhuiyan, N. N. H. (2009). Evaluation of nutritional and physico-chemical properties of several selected fruits in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 44, 353–358. [link]

Hayssen, V. & Tienhoven, A. (1993). Asdell’s Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction. Cornell University Press. [link]

Hu, Y., Xu, H. & Yang, D. (1989). The studies on ecology in Hylobates leucogenysZoological Research 10, 61–67. [link] [pdf]

Hu, Y., Xu, H. & Yang, D. (1990). Feeding ecology of the white-cheeked gibbon (Hylobates concolor leucogenys). Acta Ecologica Sinica 10, 155–159. [link] [pdf]

Liu, Z., Yongzu, Z., Haisheng, J. & Southwick, C. (1989). Population structure of Hylobates concolor in Bawanglin Nature Reserve, Hainan, China. American Journal of Primatology 19, 247–254. [link]

Long, H., Tam, N., Minh, H., Tinh, N. & Tuan, B. (2011). Survey of the northern buff-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus annamensis) in Kon Ka Kinh National Park, Gia Lai Province, Vietnam. Fauna & Flora International/Conservation International. [link] [pdf]

Malone, N. & Fuentes, A. (2009). The ecology and evolution of hylobatid communities: causal and contextual factors underlying inter- and intraspecific variation. In The Gibbons, eds. S. Lappan and D. Whittaker, pp. 133-159. Springer Science+Business Media. [link]

Margulis, S. W., Burns, F. & Rothenberg, A. (2012). Sex ratio bias in managed populations of hylobatids. Folia Primatologica 82, 224-235. [link]

Melfi, V. (2012). Ex situ gibbon conservation: status, management and birth sex ratios. International Zoo Yearbook 46, 241–251. [link]

Mootnick, A. R., Chan, B., Moisson, P. & Nadler, T. (2012). The status of the Hainan gibbon Nomascus hainanus and the Eastern black gibbon Nomascus nasutusInternational Zoo Yearbook 46, 259–264. [link]

Moisson, P. & Berthet, M. (2007). Nomascus European Studbook Number 2 EEP (data 31.12.2006). Zoo Mulhouse. [link] [pdf]

Rafacz, M. L., Margulis, S. W. & Santymire, R. M. (2013). Hormonal and behavioral patterns of reproduction in female hylobatids. Animal Reproduction Science 137, 103–112. [link]

Rowe, N. (1996). The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. Pogonias Press. [link]

Saklani, S. & Chandra, S. (2012). In vitro antimicrobial activity, nutritional profile, and phytochemical screening of wild edible fruit of garhwal himalaya (Ficus auriculata). International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 12, 61. [link]

Smith, R. & Jungers, W. (1997). Body mass in comparative primatology. Journal of Human Evolution 32, 523-559. [link]

Sun, J., Liu, S., Zhang, C., Yu, L., Zhu, F., & Yang, Q. (2012) Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Broussonetia papyriferaPLoS ONE 7, e32021. [link]

Thinh, V. N., Mootnick, A. R., Thanh, V. N., Nadler, T. & Roos, C. (2010). A new species of crested gibbon, from the central Annamite mountain range. Vietnamese Journal of Primatology 4, 1–12. [pdf]

World Wildlife Fund. (2015). Global Ecoregions. Accessed July 2015. [link]

Zhang, M., Fellowes, J.R., Jiang, X. & Wang, W. (2010) Degradation of tropical forest in Hainan, China, 1991–2008: Conservation implications for Hainan gibbon (Nomascus hainanus). Biological Conservation 143, 1397-1404. [link]

Zhou, J., Wei, F., Li, M., Zhang, J., Wang, D., & Pan, R. (2005). Hainan black-crested gibbon is headed for extinction. International Journal of Primatology 26, 453-465. [link]

Zhou, J, Wei, F, Li, M, Lok, C. & Wang, D. (2008). Reproductive characters and mating behaviour of wild Nomascus hainanusInternational Journal of Primatology 29, 1037-1046. [link]