Orangutan (Pongo)

The orangutan are currently classified as two species: the endangered Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) and the critically endangered Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii).

Dataset

The following dataset comprise data on the demography, life history, ontogeny, morphology, energetics, and nutrition of the Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii) and the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). All data describe adults unless noted otherwise. The data are compiled from many different sources, thus compromising the value of both inter- and intraspecific data comparisons. All datasets include a sources sheet; the complete bibliography is also presented on the webpage. Many ape species have not been studied thoroughly and lack data in most areas of interest.

Whole dataset

Bibliography

Ancrenaz, M., Marshall, A., Goossens, B., van Schaik, C., Sugardjito, J., Gumal, M. & Wich, S. (2008). Pongo pygmaeus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. Accessed August 2015. [link]

Anderson, H., Thompson, M., Knott, C. & Perkins, L. (2008). Fertility and mortality patterns of captive Bornean and Sumatran orangutans: is there a species difference in life history. Journal of Human Evolution 54, 34–42. [link] [pdf]

Dahl, J., Gould, K. & Nadler, R. (1993). Testicle size of orang-utans in relation to body size. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 90, 229–36. [link]

Elder, M., ed. (2012). International Studbook of the Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus, Pongo abelii). World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. [pdf]

Fooden, J. & Izor, R. (1983). Growth curves, dental emergence norms, and supplementary morphological observations in known‐age captive orangutans. American Journal of Primatology 5, 285–301. [link]

Fox, E., van Schaik, C., Sitompul, A. & Wright, D. (2004). Intra‐and interpopulational differences in orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) activity and diet: implications for the invention of tool use. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 125, 162–174. [link]

Galdikas, B. (1985). Subadult male orangutan sociality and reproductive behavior at Tanjung Puting. American Journal of Primatology 8, 87–99. [link]

Hayssen, V. & Tienhoven, A. (1993). Asdell’s Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction. Cornell University Press. [link]

Knott, C. (1998). Changes in orangutan caloric intake, energy balance, and ketones in response to fluctuating fruit availability. International Journal of Primatology 19, 1061–1079. [link] [pdf]

Markham, R. (1990). Breeding orangutans at Perth Zoo: Twenty years of appropriate husbandry. Zoo Biology 9, 171–182. [link]

Marshall, A. J., R. Lacy, M. Ancrenaz, O. Byers, S. Husson, M. Leighton, E. Meijaard, N. Rosen, I. Singleton, S. Stephens, K. Traylor-Holtzer, S. Utami Atmoko, C. P. van Schaik, and S. A. Wich. (2009). Orangutan population biology, life history, and conservation: perspectives from PVA models. In Orangutans: Geographic variation in behavioral ecology and conservation, eds. S. A. Wich, S. Utami, T. Mitra Setia, and C. P. van Schaik, pp. 311-326. Oxford University Press. [link] [pdf]

Mitani, J. (1989). Orangutan activity budgets: Monthly variations and the effects of body size, parturition, and sociality. American Journal of Primatology 18, 87–100. [link]

Morrogh-Bernard, H. C., S. J. Husson, C. D. Knott, S. A. Wich., C. P. van Schaik, M. A. van Noordwijk, I. Lackman-Ancrenaz, A. J. Marshall, T. Kanamori, N. Kuze, R. bin Sakong. (2009). Orangutan activity budgets: a comparison between species, populations and habitats. In  Orangutans: Geographic variation in behavioral ecology and conservation, eds. S. A. Wich, S. Utami, T. Mitra Setia, and C. P. van Schaik, pp. 119-133. Oxford University Press. [link] [pdf]

Pontzer, H., Raichlen, D.A., Shumaker, R.W., Ocobock, C., Wich, S.A. (2010). Metabolic adaptation for low energy throughput in orangutans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107, 14048-14052. [link]

Rowe, N. (1996). The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. Pogonias Press. [link]

Schmidt, D. (2007). Nutrition. Orangutan Species Survival Plan Husbandry Manual. Accessed August 2015. [link] [pdf]

Seitz, A. (1969). Notes on the body weights of new–born and young orang‐utans Pongo pygmaeusInternational Zoo Yearbook 9, 81–84. [link]

Singleton, I. & van Schaik, C. (2001). Orangutan home range size and its determinants in a Sumatran swamp forest. International Journal of Primatology 22, 877–911. [link]

Singleton, I., Wich, S.A. & Griffiths, M. (2008). Pongo abelii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. Accessed August 2015. [link]

Singleton, I., Knott, C., Morrogh-Bernard, H., Wich, S. & van Schaik. (2009). Ranging behavior of orangutan females and social organization. In Orangutans: Geographic variation in behavioral ecology and conservation, eds. S. A. Wich, S. Utami, T. Mitra Setia, and C. P. van Schaik, pp. 205-213. Oxford University Press. [link] [pdf]

Smith, R. & Jungers, W. (1997). Body mass in comparative primatology. Journal of Human Evolution 32, 523-559. [link]

Wich, S., Utami-Atmoko S., Setia T., Rijksen H., Schürmann C., van Hooff J., van Schaik C. (2004). Life history of wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii). Journal of Human Evolution 47, 385–398. [link]

World Wildlife Fund. (2015). Global Ecoregions. Accessed July 2015. [link]

Zihlman, A., Mcfarland, R. & Underwood, C. (2011). Functional anatomy and adaptation of male gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with comparison to male orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). The Anatomical Record 294, 1842–1855. [link] [pdf]