Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus)

The siamang are distinguished among the hylobatids by their larger size and paternal care.


The following dataset comprise data on the demography, life history, ontogeny, morphology, energetics, and nutrition of the siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus). All data describe adults unless noted otherwise. The data are compiled from many different sources, thus compromising the value of both inter- and intraspecific data comparisons. All datasets include a sources sheet; the complete bibliography is also presented on the webpage. Many ape species have not been studied thoroughly and lack data in most areas of interest.

Whole dataset


Elder, A. (2009) Hylobatid diets revisited: The importance of body mass, fruit availability, and interspecific competition. In The Gibbons, eds. S. Lappan and D. Whittaker, pp. 133-159. Springer Science+Business Media. [link]

Geissmann, T. (1991). Reassessment of age of sexual maturity in gibbons (Hylobates spp.). American Journal of Primatology 23, 11–22. [link] [pdf]

Geissmann, T. & Anzenberger, G. (2009). Hormonal correlates of the ovarian cycle in the yellow-cheeked crested gibbon (Nomascus gabriellae), and a review of ovarian cycles in gibbons (Hylobatidae). Gibbon Journal 5, 61–73. [link] [pdf]

Geissmann, T. & Orgeldinger, M. (1995). Neonatal weight in gibbons (Hylobates spp.). American Journal of Primatology 37, 179–189. [link] [pdf]

Hayssen, V. & Tienhoven, A. (1993). Asdell’s Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction. Cornell University Press. [link]

Lappan S (2009). Patterns of infant care in wild siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus) in southern Sumatra. In The Gibbons, eds. S. Lappan and D. Whittaker, pp. 327-346. Springer Science+Bus. [link]

Lappan, S. (2009). The effects of lactation and infant care on adult energy budgets in wild siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 140, 290–301. [link]

Leigh, S. R. & Shea, B. T. (1995). Ontogeny and the evolution of adult body size dimorphism in apes. American Journal of Primatology 36, 37–60. [link]

Malone, N. & Fuentes, A. (2009). The ecology and evolution of hylobatid communities: causal and contextual factors underlying inter- and intraspecific variation. In The Gibbons, eds. S. Lappan and D. Whittaker, pp. 241-264. Springer Science+Business Media. [link]

Margulis, S. W., Burns, F. & Rothenberg, A. (2012). Sex ratio bias in managed populations of hylobatids. Folia Primatologica 82, 224-235. [link]

Miller, S. (2010). Husbandry Manual for white-handed gibbon Hylobates lar. Western Sydney Institute of TAFE. [pdf]

Palombit, R. A. (1995). Longitudinal patterns of reproduction in wild female siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) and white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar). International Journal of Primatology 16, 739–760. [link]

Rafacz, M. L., Margulis, S. W. & Santymire, R. M. (2013). Hormonal and behavioral patterns of reproduction in female hylobatids. Animal Reproduction Science 137, 103–112. [link]

Rowe, N. (1996). The Pictorial Guide to the Living Primates. Pogonias Press. [link]

Smith, R. & Jungers, W. (1997). Body mass in comparative primatology. Journal of Human Evolution 32, 523-559. [link]

Zihlman, A., Mootnick, A. & Underwood, C. (2011). Anatomical contributions to hylobatids taxonomy and adaptation. International Journal of Primatology 32, 865–877. [link]